33. Class Struggle Within and Against the Confederacy

This valuable article comes from a website, ‘The Essential Civil War Curriculum.’ It digs deep and brings to the surface important facts about the war of resistance and rebellion against the Slavocracy, not only by the slaves but also by poor upland whites, and at times they fought together and… Read more“33. Class Struggle Within and Against the Confederacy”

10. The Mohicans and New Netherland

Around the turn of the millennium, 1600, the ‘Muh-he-ka-neew’ people (Or ‘Mohican’, which translates to ‘people of the continually flowing waters’) lived and thrived along the long river valley flowing into the Atlantic. They had a string of small settlements comprised of small-to-medium-sized longhouses, each with corn, beans, and squash… Read more“10. The Mohicans and New Netherland”

11. New Sweden and a Socialist Experiment

‘Poutaxat’ is what the southernmost Lenape people called the large Mid-Atlantic estuary where they lived, and ‘Lenape Wihittuck’ is the name they gave the large river that flowed into it. They lived much as their northern cousins, the Mohicans. They were a largely settled agricultural and matrilineal society, with longhouses… Read more“11. New Sweden and a Socialist Experiment”

12. Albemarle Democracy in North Carolina

By the last half of the 1600s, The Tuscarora and other native peoples in their region, recently named ‘Carolina’ by a king and ‘lord proprietors’ across an ocean, were having troubles with the newcomers living among them. The ‘Indians’ prized the metal goods and weapons, but they also suspected the… Read more“12. Albemarle Democracy in North Carolina”

15. The Susquehannocks and the Paxton Boys

  The Susquehannocks were a native people occupying what is now central Pennsylvania and the river flowing into the Chesapeake Bay that shares their name. They had lived there for hundreds of years before the European arrivals. Captain John Smith of Jamestown, Virginia, encountered them in 1608 as he explored… Read more“15. The Susquehannocks and the Paxton Boys”

16. New York City 1741: A ‘Motley Crew’ Class Revolt

In 1741, dozens of free and enslaved men of modest or no means and a few women, all multiracial and multinational, had gathered many times at John Hughson’s New York City tavern. Among other things, they spent much of their time plotting an insurrection against the worst of the rich…. Read more“16. New York City 1741: A ‘Motley Crew’ Class Revolt”

18. A ‘Motley Crew’ in the 1747 Knowles Riot in Boston

In November 1747, a large insurgency of Boston-based sailors, slaves, and other workers, of English, African, and other backgrounds arose together, seized the city, and held British naval officers hostage for three days. They demanded the freedom of dozens of their comrades ‘press ganged’ into captivity as would-be sailors on… Read more“18. A ‘Motley Crew’ in the 1747 Knowles Riot in Boston”

20. The Shawnee, Lord Dunmore, and the 1776 Western Front

The beginnings of a multi-tribal and multinational conflict over ‘the Ohio Country,’ an area later widened and renamed ‘the Northwest Territories,’ is not widely familiar. Most of the stories we learned of the American Revolution ignore or downplay this dimension in favor of all the battles along the Eastern Seaboard… Read more“20. The Shawnee, Lord Dunmore, and the 1776 Western Front”

21. The ‘Ohio Country’, the Shawnee, and Pontiac’s Revolt

The land south of the Great Lakes, and bordered west of the Alleghenies by the Ohio River has a rich and deep past, reaching back to times before ‘Europe’ even existed, save as the tribal border areas north and west of the Roman Empire. Today the remnants of the Ohio-centered… Read more“21. The ‘Ohio Country’, the Shawnee, and Pontiac’s Revolt”

25. California’s Tales of Beauty and Genocide

Peoples from Siberia and Northwest Asia were the earliest immigrants to the Eastern Pacific shore of ‘Turtle Island.’ Starting more than 18,000 years ago, most probably moved along the shoreline from the Bering Strait or across its land bridge, then down along the Alaska Coast to the more temperate and… Read more“25. California’s Tales of Beauty and Genocide”

26. Chinese Americans and Their Persistence

There are several speculative accounts by a few historians that fleets of Chinese ships, or ‘Junks,’ reached the West Coast and Mexico decades, or even centuries, before the first contact by Spain. One even suggests Chinese influences among the Olmec peoples in what is now Mexico. Whether true or not,… Read more“26. Chinese Americans and Their Persistence”

28. The Philippines and Pacific Islanders

Pacific Islanders (AAPI) are a diverse group of people who trace their ancestry to various countries and regions in Asia, including East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and the Pacific Islands. In addition to the Philippines, Pacific Islanders include people from Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia, such as Hawaii, Samoa, Fiji,… Read more“28. The Philippines and Pacific Islanders”

29. Korea, Vietnam and ‘War Immigrants.’

‘War immigrants’ are the rule, not the exception. Nearly every ‘great power’ that waged war abroad over colonies, annexation, or hegemony, has seen the consequence of a sizable in-migration of refugees from those wars. Some sided with them in the fighting, and others fled intolerable conditions. The U.S. is no… Read more“29. Korea, Vietnam and ‘War Immigrants.’”

30. Japanese Americans, the WW2 Camps, and the Rainbow Coalition

Today there are about 1.5 million Japanese Americans in the United States, with the largest numbers living in California and Hawaii. Japanese migration began in the mid-19th century following Japan’s 1868 Meiji Restoration. Japan then underwent significant modernization and Westernization. As part of this process, the Japanese government encouraged emigration… Read more“30. Japanese Americans, the WW2 Camps, and the Rainbow Coalition”

32. Deseret and the Mormon Zion in the West

What was Deseret, and who were the Mormons? Any all-sided history of the Southwest, with its Native peoples, Mexicans, and Spaniards, will be woefully incomplete without a discussion of these questions. In the case of the Mormons and their unique theology, we’ll mainly present it in its own terms, without… Read more“32. Deseret and the Mormon Zion in the West”